Cinnamon is a multi-purpose plant. Cinnamon bark and fruit are used as medicines, leaves and dried husks for essential oils and spices, timber for construction and household appliances. This is a tree with high economic efficiency and is grown in many places.
Morphological characteristics of cinnamon
– Cinnamon is a woody plant, perennial, in mature trees can be over 15 m high, the diameter at breast height (1.3 m) can reach 40 cm.
– Cinnamon has a single leaf that grows well or near opposite leaves with three root veins extending up to the tip of the leaf and prominent on the underside of the leaf, the veins almost parallel, the upper surface of the glossy green leaves, the underside of dark green leaves , mature leaves about 18 – 20 cm long, about 6 – 8 cm wide, petioles about 1 cm long.
– Cinnamon has egg-shaped foliage, evergreen year-round, round stems, gray outer shell, slightly cracked vertically.
– In the parts of the cinnamon tree such as bark, leaves, flowers, wood, roots all contain essential oils, especially in the bark with the highest content of essential oils, sometimes reaches 4-5%.
– Cinnamon tree about 8 to 10 years of age begins to flower, cinnamon grows in axillary heads and branches, inflorescences, as small as half a grain of rice, rising to the top of leaves, white or yellowish.
– Cinnamon flowers in April, May and ripe fruit in January, 2 years later. Unripe cinnamon has green color, when ripe, it turns to charcoal purple, clear berry contains one seed, fruit is 1 to 1.2 cm long, oval seeds, 1 kg cinnamon has about 2500-3000 seeds.
– Cinnamon oil has oil, so when faced with temperature conditions, high humidity seeds will melt oil and lose germination
– Cinnamon root system thrives, roots deep in the ground, eagle roots spread, crisscross so cinnamon has the ability to live well on steep hills and mountains.
Ecological characteristics of cinnamon tree
Trees grow in tropical, evergreen moist forests, at elevations below 800m. Cinnamon is a light demanding timber tree, but at the young stage, the tree needs to be shaded. When mature 3-4 years old trees need adequate lighting. The more light there is, the faster the plant grows and the higher the quality of the essential oil.
Cinnamon has a well-developed root system, pillar roots are deeply rooted in the soil and the tree has a relatively fast growth rate. In the mountainous area of A Luoi (Quang Tri), seeds from the seed to 3.5 years of age reached an average height of 2.2 m (maximum 2.7 m). 9-year-old tree has an average height of 6.9 – 7.0 m with an average trunk diameter of 20 – 21 cm. Cinnamon has the ability to regenerate shoots from the root quite strongly.
In production, after cutting down the tree bark, from the root will produce many young shoots. It is possible to leave a bud behind and continue to care for later re-harvesting
Cinnamon is a tree species suitable for humid tropical climate, heavy rain, lots of sunshine, so the areas with natural cinnamon growing in our country are areas with:
– High rainfall from 2000 – 4000 mm / year; the most appropriate rainfall is 2000 – 3000mm / year. Annual rainfall in cinnamon growing areas in our country is usually about 1,600 – 2,500 mm.
– Cinnamon prefers hot and humid climate. The suitable temperature for cinnamon growth and development is 20 – 250C.
– However, cinnamon can still withstand low temperature conditions (cold to 10 C or 00 C) or maximum temperatures up to 37 – 380C
– Average annual temperature from 20 – 290C
– Air humidity is over 85%;
Cinnamon can grow on soils of different sources of parent rocks (sandstone, schist, etc.), moist humus, loose soil; red soil, yellow soil, sandy soil; hilly, acidic soil (pH 4-6), poor nutrition, but well drained (except limestone, sandy soil, flooded soil).
It is best to plant Cinnamon where the nature of forest land, soil with medium to thick layers, newly reclaimed forest land after shifting cultivation, and forests with scattered shrubs …